AVL with duplicate keys

Please refer below post before reading about AVL tree handling of duplicates.

How to handle duplicates in Binary Search Tree?

The is to augment AVL tree node to store count together with regular fields like key, left and right pointers.
Insertion of keys 12, 10, 20, 9, 11, 10, 12, 12 in an empty Binary Search Tree would create following.

          12(3)
       /        \
     10(2)      20(1)
    /    \       
 9(1)   11(1)   

Count of a key is shown in bracket

Below is C implementation of normal AVL Tree with count with every key. This code basically is taken from code for insert and delete in AVL tree. The changes made for handling duplicates are highlighted, rest of the code is same.

The important thing to note is changes are very similar to simple Binary Search Tree changes.

// AVL tree that handles duplicates
#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>

// An AVL tree node
struct node
{
    int key;
    struct node *left;
    struct node *right;
    int height;
    int count;
};

// A utility function to get maximum of two integers
int max(int a, int b);

// A utility function to get height of the tree
int height(struct node *N)
{
    if (N == NULL)
        return 0;
    return N->height;
}

// A utility function to get maximum of two integers
int max(int a, int b)
{
    return (a > b)? a : b;
}

/* Helper function that allocates a new node with the given key and
    NULL left and right pointers. */
struct node* newNode(int key)
{
    struct node* node = (struct node*)
                        malloc(sizeof(struct node));
    node->key   = key;
    node->left   = NULL;
    node->right  = NULL;
    node->height = 1;  // new node is initially added at leaf
    node->count = 1;
    return(node);
}

// A utility function to right rotate subtree rooted with y
// See the diagram given above.
struct node *rightRotate(struct node *y)
{
    struct node *x = y->left;
    struct node *T2 = x->right;

    // Perform rotation
    x->right = y;
    y->left = T2;

    // Update heights
    y->height = max(height(y->left), height(y->right))+1;
    x->height = max(height(x->left), height(x->right))+1;

    // Return new root
    return x;
}

// A utility function to left rotate subtree rooted with x
// See the diagram given above.
struct node *leftRotate(struct node *x)
{
    struct node *y = x->right;
    struct node *T2 = y->left;

    // Perform rotation
    y->left = x;
    x->right = T2;

    //  Update heights
    x->height = max(height(x->left), height(x->right))+1;
    y->height = max(height(y->left), height(y->right))+1;

    // Return new root
    return y;
}

// Get Balance factor of node N
int getBalance(struct node *N)
{
    if (N == NULL)
        return 0;
    return height(N->left) - height(N->right);
}

struct node* insert(struct node* node, int key)
{
    /* 1.  Perform the normal BST rotation */
    if (node == NULL)
        return (newNode(key));

    // If key already exists in BST, icnrement count and return
    if (key == node->key)
    {
        (node->count)++;
        return node;
    }

     /* Otherwise, recur down the tree */
    if (key < node->key)
        node->left  = insert(node->left, key);
    else
        node->right = insert(node->right, key);

    /* 2. Update height of this ancestor node */
    node->height = max(height(node->left), height(node->right)) + 1;

    /* 3. Get the balance factor of this ancestor node to check whether
       this node became unbalanced */
    int balance = getBalance(node);

    // If this node becomes unbalanced, then there are 4 cases

    // Left Left Case
    if (balance > 1 && key < node->left->key)
        return rightRotate(node);

    // Right Right Case
    if (balance < -1 && key > node->right->key)
        return leftRotate(node);

    // Left Right Case
    if (balance > 1 && key > node->left->key)
    {
        node->left =  leftRotate(node->left);
        return rightRotate(node);
    }

    // Right Left Case
    if (balance < -1 && key < node->right->key)
    {
        node->right = rightRotate(node->right);
        return leftRotate(node);
    }

    /* return the (unchanged) node pointer */
    return node;
}

/* Given a non-empty binary search tree, return the node with minimum
   key value found in that tree. Note that the entire tree does not
   need to be searched. */
struct node * minValueNode(struct node* node)
{
    struct node* current = node;

    /* loop down to find the leftmost leaf */
    while (current->left != NULL)
        current = current->left;

    return current;
}

struct node* deleteNode(struct node* root, int key)
{
    // STEP 1: PERFORM STANDARD BST DELETE

    if (root == NULL)
        return root;

    // If the key to be deleted is smaller than the root's key,
    // then it lies in left subtree
    if ( key < root->key )
        root->left = deleteNode(root->left, key);

    // If the key to be deleted is greater than the root's key,
    // then it lies in right subtree
    else if( key > root->key )
        root->right = deleteNode(root->right, key);

    // if key is same as root's key, then This is the node
    // to be deleted
    else
    {
        // If key is present more than once, simply decrement
        // count and return
        if (root->count > 1)
        {
            (root->count)--;
            return;
        }
        // ElSE, delete the node

        // node with only one child or no child
        if( (root->left == NULL) || (root->right == NULL) )
        {
            struct node *temp = root->left ? root->left : root->right;

            // No child case
            if(temp == NULL)
            {
                temp = root;
                root = NULL;
            }
            else // One child case
             *root = *temp; // Copy the contents of the non-empty child

            free(temp);
        }
        else
        {
            // node with two children: Get the inorder successor (smallest
            // in the right subtree)
            struct node* temp = minValueNode(root->right);

            // Copy the inorder successor's data to this node
            root->key = temp->key;

            // Delete the inorder successor
            root->right = deleteNode(root->right, temp->key);
        }
    }

    // If the tree had only one node then return
    if (root == NULL)
      return root;

    // STEP 2: UPDATE HEIGHT OF THE CURRENT NODE
    root->height = max(height(root->left), height(root->right)) + 1;

    // STEP 3: GET THE BALANCE FACTOR OF THIS NODE (to check whether
    //  this node became unbalanced)
    int balance = getBalance(root);

    // If this node becomes unbalanced, then there are 4 cases

    // Left Left Case
    if (balance > 1 && getBalance(root->left) >= 0)
        return rightRotate(root);

    // Left Right Case
    if (balance > 1 && getBalance(root->left) < 0)
    {
        root->left =  leftRotate(root->left);
        return rightRotate(root);
    }

    // Right Right Case
    if (balance < -1 && getBalance(root->right) <= 0)
        return leftRotate(root);

    // Right Left Case
    if (balance < -1 && getBalance(root->right) > 0)
    {
        root->right = rightRotate(root->right);
        return leftRotate(root);
    }

    return root;
}

// A utility function to print preorder traversal of the tree.
// The function also prints height of every node
void preOrder(struct node *root)
{
    if(root != NULL)
    {
        printf("%d(%d) ", root->key, root->count);
        preOrder(root->left);
        preOrder(root->right);
    }
}

/* Drier program to test above function*/
int main()
{
  struct node *root = NULL;

  /* Constructing tree given in the above figure */
    root = insert(root, 9);
    root = insert(root, 5);
    root = insert(root, 10);
    root = insert(root, 5);
    root = insert(root, 9);
    root = insert(root, 7);
    root = insert(root, 17);

    printf("Pre order traversal of the constructed AVL tree is \n");
    preOrder(root);

    root = deleteNode(root, 9);

    printf("\nPre order traversal after deletion of 10 \n");
    preOrder(root);

    return 0;
}

Output:

Pre order traversal of the constructed AVL tree is
9(2) 5(2) 7(1) 10(1) 17(1)
Pre order traversal after deletion of 10
9(1) 5(2) 7(1) 10(1) 17(1) 

Thanks to Rounaq Jhunjhunu Wala for sharing initial code. Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above


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