# Category Archives: Articles

## Half Adder and Half Subtractor using NAND NOR gates

Implementation of Half Adder using NAND gates : Total 5 NAND gates are required to implement half adder. Implementation of Half Adder using NOR gates : Total 5 NOR gates are required to implement half adder. Implementation of Half Subtractor using NAND gates : Total 5 NAND gates are required to implement half subtractor. Implementation… Read More »

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## Full Adder | Digital Electronics

Full Adder is the adder which adds three inputs and produces two outputs. The first two inputs are A and B and the third input is an input carry as C-IN. The output carry is designated as C-OUT and the normal output is designated as S which is SUM. A full adder logic is designed… Read More »

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## Multiplexers | Digital Electronics

It is a combinational circuit which have many data inputs and single output depending on control or select inputs.​ For N input lines, log n (base2) selection lines, or we can say that for 2n input lines, n selection lines are required. Multiplexers are also known as “Data n selector, parallel to serial convertor, many… Read More »

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## Synchronous Sequential Circuits | Digital Logic

Steps to solve a problem: 1. Draw the state diagram from the problem statement or from the given state table. Example: Serial Adder. The functioning of serial adder can be depicted by the following state diagram. X1 and X2 are inputs, A and B are states representing carry. 2. Draw the state table. If there… Read More »

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## Floating Point Representation | Digital Logic

1. To convert the floating point into decimal, we have 3 elements in a 32-bit floating point representation:     i) Sign     ii) Exponent     iii) Mantissa Sign bit is the first bit of the binary representation. '1' implies negative number and '0' implies positive number. Example: 11000001110100000000000000000000 This is negative number.… Read More »

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## Leaky Bucket Algorithm| Computer Networks

To understand this concept first we have to know little about traffic shaping. Traffic Shaping : This is a mechanism to control the amount and the rate of the traffic sent to the network. Two techniques can shape traffic: Leaky Bucket Token Bucket. Suppose we have a bucket in which we are pouring water in… Read More »

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