Category Archives: Computer Organization and Architecture

I/O Interface (Interrupt and DMA Mode)

The method that is used to transfer information between internal storage and external I/O devices is known as I/O interface. The CPU is interfaced using special communication links by the peripherals connected to any computer system. These communication links are used to resolve the differences between CPU and peripheral. There exists special hardware components between… Read More »



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Computer Organization and Architecture | Pipelining | Set 2 (Dependencies and Data Hazard)

Please see Set 1 for Execution, Stages and Performance (Throughput) and Set 3 for Types of Pipeline and Stalling.   Dependencies in a pipelined processor There are mainly three types of dependencies possible in a pipelined processor. These are : 1) Structural Dependency 2) Control Dependency 3) Data Dependency These dependencies may introduce stalls in… Read More »



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Computer Organization and Architecture | Pipelining | Set 3 (Types and Stalling)

Please see Set 1 for Execution, Stages and Performance (Throughput) and Set 2 for Dependencies and Data Hazard.   Types of pipeline Uniform delay pipeline In this type of pipeline, all the stages will take same time to complete an operation. In uniform delay pipeline, Cycle Time (Tp) = Stage Delay If buffers are included… Read More »



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Computer Organization and Architecture | Pipelining | Set 1 (Execution, Stages and Throughput)

To improve the performance of a CPU we have two options: 1) Improve the hardware by introducing faster circuits. 2) Arrange the hardware such that more than one operation can be performed at the same time. Since, there is a limit on the speed of hardware and the cost of faster circuits is quite high,… Read More »



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Cache Organization | Set 1 (Introduction)

Cache is close to CPU and faster than main memory. But at the same time is smaller than main memory. The cache organization is about mapping data in memory to a location in cache. A Simple Solution: One way to go about this mapping is to consider last few bits of long memory address to… Read More »



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Computer Arithmetic | Set – 2

  FLOATING POINT ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION FLOATING POINT ADDITION To understand floating point addition, first we see addition of real numbers in decimal as same logic is applied in both cases.   For example, we have to add 1.1 * 103 and 50. We cannot add these numbers directly. First, we need to align the… Read More »



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