Selection Sort

The selection sort algorithm sorts an array by repeatedly finding the minimum element (considering ascending order) from unsorted part and putting it at the beginning. The algorithm maintains two subarrays in a given array.

1) The subarray which is already sorted.
2) Remaining subarray which is unsorted.

In every iteration of selection sort, the minimum element (considering ascending order) from the unsorted subarray is picked and moved to the sorted subarray.

Following example explains the above steps:

arr[] = 64 25 12 22 11

// Find the minimum element in arr[0...4]
// and place it at beginning
11 25 12 22 64

// Find the minimum element in arr[1...4]
// and place it at beginning of arr[1...4]
11 12 25 22 64

// Find the minimum element in arr[2...4]
// and place it at beginning of arr[2...4]
11 12 22 25 64

// Find the minimum element in arr[3...4]
// and place it at beginning of arr[3...4]
11 12 22 25 64 

We strongly recommend that you click here and practice it, before moving on to the solution.

C/C++

// C program for implementation of selection sort
#include <stdio.h>

void swap(int *xp, int *yp)
{
    int temp = *xp;
    *xp = *yp;
    *yp = temp;
}

void selectionSort(int arr[], int n)
{
    int i, j, min_idx;

    // One by one move boundary of unsorted subarray
    for (i = 0; i < n-1; i++)
    {
        // Find the minimum element in unsorted array
        min_idx = i;
        for (j = i+1; j < n; j++)
          if (arr[j] < arr[min_idx])
            min_idx = j;

        // Swap the found minimum element with the first element
        swap(&arr[min_idx], &arr[i]);
    }
}

/* Function to print an array */
void printArray(int arr[], int size)
{
    int i;
    for (i=0; i < size; i++)
        printf("%d ", arr[i]);
    printf("\n");
}

// Driver program to test above functions
int main()
{
    int arr[] = {64, 25, 12, 22, 11};
    int n = sizeof(arr)/sizeof(arr[0]);
    selectionSort(arr, n);
    printf("Sorted array: \n");
    printArray(arr, n);
    return 0;
}

Python

# Python program for implementation of Selection
# Sort
import sys
A = [64, 25, 12, 22, 11]

# Traverse through all array elements
for i in range(len(A)):
    
    # Find the minimum element in remaining 
    # unsorted array
    min_idx = i
    for j in range(i+1, len(A)):
        if A[min_idx] > A[j]:
            min_idx = j
            
    # Swap the found minimum element with 
    # the first element        
    A[i], A[min_idx] = A[min_idx], A[i]

# Driver code to test above
print ("Sorted array")
for i in range(len(A)):
    print("%d" %A[i]), 

Java

// Java program for implementation of Selection Sort
class SelectionSort
{
    void sort(int arr[])
    {
        int n = arr.length;

        // One by one move boundary of unsorted subarray
        for (int i = 0; i < n-1; i++)
        {
            // Find the minimum element in unsorted array
            int min_idx = i;
            for (int j = i+1; j < n; j++)
                if (arr[j] < arr[min_idx])
                    min_idx = j;

            // Swap the found minimum element with the first
            // element
            int temp = arr[min_idx];
            arr[min_idx] = arr[i];
            arr[i] = temp;
        }
    }

    // Prints the array
    void printArray(int arr[])
    {
        int n = arr.length;
        for (int i=0; i<n; ++i)
            System.out.print(arr[i]+" ");
        System.out.println();
    }

    // Driver code to test above
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        SelectionSort ob = new SelectionSort();
        int arr[] = {64,25,12,22,11};
        ob.sort(arr);
        System.out.println("Sorted array");
        ob.printArray(arr);
    }
}
/* This code is contributed by Rajat Mishra*/


Output:
Sorted array:
11 12 22 25 64

Time Complexity: O(n2) as there are two nested loops.

Auxiliary Space: O(1)

The good thing about selection sort is it never makes more than O(n) swaps and can be useful when memory write is a costly operation.

 

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Quiz on Selection Sort

Other Sorting Algorithms on GeeksforGeeks/GeeksQuiz:

  • Bubble Sort
  • Insertion Sort
  • Merge Sort
  • Heap Sort
  • QuickSort
  • Radix Sort
  • Counting Sort
  • Bucket Sort
  • ShellSort
  •  

    Coding practice for sorting.

     
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